Feeling Fatigued? 3 Strategies to Combat Overtraining – Science of Running

Feeling Fatigued? 3 Strategies to Combat Overtraining – Science of Running
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Overtraining is one of those nebulous catch-all terms that coaches and athletes fear like the plague. After all, with highly competitive and slightly obsessive compulsive runners the issue is not in prodding them to do more work, but instead in holding them back just enough to keep them from reaching into this unwanted zone of overtraining. Typically, we think of overtraining as a physical state where our body has reached its limits in adapting and recovering from the work we have prescribed.

We can break this down
physiologically and talk about the muscles not being fully repaired from
training related damage, the hormonal shift towards breaking down processes, or
even the nervous system switching into a more stressed state. All of these
physiologic consequences can in fact happen, and they all indicate a mismatch
in this balance of training stress and recovery. As a result of this, the
prescription for recovering from overtraining is often rest or a much reduced
training load.

But if we look at things from a
psychobiological standpoint, this makes little sense. We may be giving the body
physical recovery, but what we fail to realize is that this insistence to rest
often creates an overreaction in the body. A recent study showed that when they
took regular endurance athletes and then forced them to take time off, symptoms
of depression and mood changes actually increased. Or from a physical point of
view, if we get a stress fracture, the bone will actually heal quicker if there
is a small stimulus to adapt in the terms of weight bearing loading, versus if
we simply walked around with crutches and put no weight on the bone.

Many modern day diseases are now be
classified as diseases of civilization, meaning that they are related to our
modern insistences on comfort and monotony. We try to eliminate all stressors
from our lives and instead end up with chronic low-grade stress instead of the
natural ebb and flow of an acute stress followed by a nice recovery. While what
we often have in over training is either too much work or too little recovery,
to fix that problem with often go to the other extreme of full recovery and
take away all stress.

What we’re looking for is not
solely eliminating the training but instead restore this natural ebb and flow
of acute stress and recovery. By doing so, we can get an athlete out of the
over trained state and back on track to. The following strategies can be used
to combat over training syndrome and reset your body so that you can make
yourself resilient to over training.

Train differently:

Research has found that one of the
many variables related to overtraining is actually monotony. The simple act of
doing the same type or pattern of training leads to an increased likelihood of
over training. The reasoning behind this is simple, the monotony creates a lack
of mental and physical stimulus from which to adapt off of. Instead of falling
into your same pattern of training, introduce something new. Do a different
workout type, go to a new training venue, or even break away from the
restricted interval workout to a more free flowing fartlek workout. Get out of
the habit of having a set cycle and instead institute what we’d call big
modulation, where there are large variations in the amount, intensity, and type
of training each day in the week instead of your normal pattern.

Go outside:

            In an
interesting study published in the British
Journal of Sports Medicine
, it was found that doing exercise in outdoor
spaces had a large impact on a variety of indices of mood that are related to
restoring willpower. This psychological impact of impacting mood and what we
call affect creates a positive recovery state. Instead of jumping on the
treadmill when your fit or cross-training on the elliptical when you’re injured,
go outside for a run or take the Elliptigo for a spin. Just the simple act of
being outside will help from a psychobiological standpoint of putting you in a
better place to recover.

Introduce Mini-Workouts:

            Another
study in the Journal of Sports Science and
Medicine
, showed that overtraining was related to both a high and low
training load, meaning that those who trained too easy actually showed signs of
stress. To combat this, introduce “mini” workouts where instead of doing a full
blown interval workout, do one that includes about 60-70% of the volume. For
instance, if normally, you would do 10×400 in 75 seconds, do 6×400 at the same
pace. By reducing the volume of the workout and keeping the intensity we still
get a small physiological stressor without pushing one over the edge physically
or mentally.





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